Thursday, May 4, 2017

An artificial Womb

A baby that is born at 23 weeks of gestation (about halfway through the normal gestation period) has only about a 50% chance of surviving. The main problem for babies born prematurely ("preemies") is that they struggle to breathe, for their lungs are not yet fully developed. Their underdeveloped hearts, too, have a hard time pumping all of the blood that the baby requires outside of the womb. In the womb, the baby's still-developing lungs are filled with amniotic fluid, and so the baby doesn't breathe at all. Oxygen is delivered to the baby (and CO2 is removed) by the blood circulating between mother and baby via the umbilical cord.

In an effort to increase the chances of survival of very premature preemies, scientists are now working to develop an artificial womb. So far, the artificial womb has only been tried with premature lambs in an experimental setting, but the early results look promising. The artificial womb looks a bit like a large re-sealable bag. Upon delivery, a premature lamb is put into the bag, and the bag is then filled with artificial amniotic fluid and sealed to prevent infections. Ports provide access to the umbilical cord and allow for exchange of amniotic fluid. The umbilical artery and vein are cannulated so that blood can be exchanged with the lamb, just as it would be in the womb. Premature lambs have been kept alive in the artificial womb for four weeks; long enough to dramatically increase their chances of survival outside the womb.

It may be awhile before you'll see artificial wombs for human use. But perhaps some day, you'll have a grandchild that was delivered at 19 weeks of gestation then grown for four weeks or more in a plastic bag!

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